DHA （Docosahexaenoic acid）
DHA is essential for brain development and accounts for 97% of the omega-3 fatty acids found in the brain and 25% of the brain’s total fat content.1 Research shows it has anti-inflammatory properties and heart health benefits as well. Here’s a closer look.
DHA for Adults
DHA also provides health benefits for non-pregnant adults, specifically for the following health conditions.
- Brain health: DHA may help protect against age-related cognitive decline, suggests a 2010 research review from Current Alzheimer’s Research.10 Analyzing data from previously published clinical trials, the review’s authors found that taking 900mg supplements containing both DHA and EPA may help treat mild cognitive impairment, but not Alzheimer’s disease.
- Depression: DHA may help protect against depression. Investigators analyzed 14 studies on polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in depressive patients and found people with depression may be more likely to have low levels of DHA and EPA. The study authors suggest that DHA and EPA may reduce depressive symptoms.
- Heart disease: While there was hope for many years that DHA supplementation might improve outcomes in people with heart disease, more recent evaluation (up to 2017) has not been able to demonstrate a mortality benefit.12 It does seem to have some efficacy in improving arrhythmias but more studies are needed.
DHA’s Possible Side Effects（副作用)
Although DHA is generally considered safe, taking DHA in the form of fish oil is known to cause a number of side effects, including bad breath, heartburn, and nausea.
What’s more, there’s some concern that fish oil might reduce immune system activity and weaken the body’s defense against infection. In addition, taking fish oil in combination with certain medications (such as blood pressure drugs) may produce harmful effects in some cases. It’s important to consult your physician before combining fish oil with medications.
Fish oil has a blood-thinning effect and should be taken with caution and only after consulting with a physician by people who are on blood thinners or anti-platelet medications.
Citicoline enhances glucose metabolism and increases blood flow to the brain. Citicoline is so effective at increasing circulation to the brain that doctors throughout Europe have been prescribing it for this reason for years.
Citicoline is considered a nootropic and is often sold as either a single ingredient supplement or included in nootropic brain supplement formulas.
Cognition tends to decline with aging, due to reduced brain blood flow or other causes. A review of 14 clinical trials concluded that CDP-choline could improve memory and behavior in people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment, including those with poor brain circulation
According to preliminary research, citicoline may enhance focus and mental clarity, especially in low cognitive performers.
Another, smaller-scale, study of 11 epilepsy patients reported some relatively minor side-effects, such as increased fatigue, but ultimately concluded that piracetam was generally well-tolerated by most patients over the course of the 18 months of treatment .
In another placebo-controlled study of 60 concussion patients, a daily 4800mg dose of piracetam for 8 weeks was reported to partially reduce some of the symptoms commonly associated with brain injuries, such as vertigo, headaches, fatigue, and decreased alertness. However, 64% of the piracetam-treated patients reported experiencing negative side-effects (compared to just 32% of the placebo group .
- “Brain fog”
- Sleepiness / drowsiness / fatigue
- Sleep issues
- Muscle twitching
- Excessive sweating
- Various cognitive problems (such as issues with reading, spelling, and verbal retrieval)
L-Tyrosine is also necessary to the production of both thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, and melanin, a natural pigment occurring in the hair, skin, and eyes.
L-Tyrosine is available in high-protein dietary sources like dairy products, meats, fish, and eggs, but the body also produces it from another amino acid called L-phenylalanine. Because the body can produce adequate amounts of L-tyrosine, supplementation isn’t essential for basic health.
Research suggests that supplemental L-tyrosine can enhance cognition, increase energy, boost mood, and increase motivation, particularly for people under physical or environmental stress.
One of the most interesting aspects of L-tyrosine supplementation is that it performs best under pressure, but that doesn’t necessarily mean that L-tyrosine’s effectiveness is limited to extreme situations.
L-theanine was first isolated from the gyokuro leaf in a laboratory in Kyoto, Japan in 1949. Gyokuro is a type of green tea with a high L-theanine content, though the amino acid can be found in other green, black, and white teas from Camellia sinensis.2
L-theanine is a non-protein and non-dietary amino acid with a chemical structure and blood-brain barrier crossing similar to major neurotransmitters like glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).3 Like these neurotransmitters, L-theanine is heavily associated with the effects it can have on our moods.
Can Improve Focus, Memory, and Attention
Maybe sleep isn’t your focus area for improvement; maybe focus is your focus area. If so, surrendering your attention to L-theanine may help it.
Human studies have shown L-theanine can increase focus, reaction times, and even visual processing, particularly in conjunction with caffeine.
研究表明，使用茶氨酸除了少量降低血压和心率外没有明显副作用。L-Theanine + 咖啡因是比较推荐的简单安全的提高认知能力和思维敏锐度的组合
银杏叶提取物 Ginkgo Biloba Extract Powder
银杏叶提取物Ginkgo biloba P.E.可能在大脑，眼球视网膜和心血管系统中可发挥抗氧化特性。其在大脑和中枢神经系统中的抗氧化作用可能有助于防止因年龄导致的大脑功能衰落。银杏叶提取物在大脑中的抗氧化功能特别使人感兴趣。大脑和中枢神经系统特别易受自由基攻击。自由基导致大脑损伤被广泛认为是导致伴随衰老而来的多种疾病的影响因素，其中甚至包括阿兹海默症。
There is some evidence indicating that ginkgo can help people with dementia, although more studies are required to confirm this.
The benefits may include:
- improved thinking and memory
- better social behavior
- better ability to perform everyday tasks
One study found that an extract of ginkgo biloba, known as EGb 761, was clinically effective in treating Alzheimer’s dementia.
Other research, published in JAMA, similarly concluded that EGb 761 was safe to use and possibly effective in stabilizing and possibly improving cognitive and the social functioning patients with dementia for between 6 and 12 months.
Researchers believe that ginkgo improves cognitive function because it promotes good blood circulation in the brain and protects the brain and other parts from neuronal damage.
However, other research suggests that ginkgo may not improve memory among people who are healthy.
红景天提取物 Rhodiola Rosea
I asked my friend and colleague, Tieraona Low Dog, M.D., an internationally recognized expert in the fields of integrative medicine, dietary supplements and women’s health, for her view on Rhodiola extract. She says that it is one of her favorite herbs for treatment of patients suffering from “21st century stress”: fatigue, mental fog, trouble concentrating, low energy and, perhaps, mild depression. She recommends using a standardized extract.
In addition, a study published in 2007 in the Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, showed that patients with mild-to-moderate depression who took a rhodiola extract reported fewer symptoms of depression than those who took a placebo. A small human trial of rhodiola at UCLA published in 2008, reported significant improvement in 10 people with generalized anxiety who took the herb for 10 weeks.
- Modafini；2. Ratalin; 3. Adderall 用于治疗ADHD，抑郁和嗜睡等疾病。如果有特殊的疾病，需要在精神科就医后开出，不做详细介绍。